Archive for the ‘Criminology’ Category

Where to Use the Course Text Criminology Explaining Crime and Context 5th Edition

In undergraduate school, it is very important for individuals to be able to understand the material that they need to learn in order to graduate. This is why it is so critical for many teachers and professors to make sure that the text books they assign to their classes are able to understand the material that is written inside of the book. Because criminology is a theoretical science, it can be difficult to understand in all instances since there are no set or guaranteed facts, only theories that can be followed by the individual. As a result, it can be challenging for some students to succinctly understand the many different theories that are and have been used by individuals that illustrate criminology in a particular time or place. The course text Criminology Explaining Crime and Context 5th edition is one of the best books that will explain these theories and the contexts in which they have been used over time to the student. This is important because many career opportunities after college will require the individual to understand different key elements of the theories and approaches that are used when it comes to criminology. By learning this information prior to graduating, students are able to have a better chance of being successful in the field of criminology after graduation.

If you find yourself confused by what you’ve read to this point, don’t despair. Everything should be crystal clear by the time you finish.

This is a book that is used in many instances to be the core text of the course. It is very effective and covers a lot of the necessary material that individual interested in studying criminology will need to learn. Some professors will implement this course text as a book to be used to help introduce individuals to the different concepts and theories that relate to criminology. Others will wait a little longer to introduce the students to criminology in order to ensure that the students are properly prepared for what they will have to learn and cover when it comes to being able to graduate with enough information. Most courses will need a specific amount of time in order to properly cover the necessary information within the course text book.

However, in the class room is not the only place where individuals can benefit from reading this material. There are many individuals that have an outside interest in the world of criminology. If a person is not interested in going to school in order to get a degree in criminology, but they still have a desire to know more about the science, then it can be very helpful for them to get this book in order to learn many of the similar things that they would learn if they had been going to classes on the matter. By allowing individuals to access pertinent information in a manner that is straightforward, more people are able to understand and learn about the complex theoretical science known as criminology. Like most text books in colleges, the text reader is fairly expensive, but the material inside the book is very beneficial and advantageous to the individual that is using it as a learning device, for personal or professional gain.

Knowing enough about Criminology to make solid, informed choices cuts down on the fear factor. If you apply what you’ve just learned about Criminology, you should have nothing to worry about.

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Exploring Criminology Lesson Plans

In order for anyone to get a degree in Criminology, it is important that they pass a series of tests that have been standardized and mandated by the specific college which the student attends or in which the student partakes. In order to ensure that men and women struggling to receive a criminology degree know the important basics of criminology and the relationship between crime and the public, it is important for the students to learn the same basic elements of the field. For example, there are three widely held beliefs that define different causes of crime and the criminal. These are known as the schools of thought for Criminology. The lesson plan at any college would then likely, if not undoubtedly, include an exploration of these different schools of thought in order to examine how people viewed the field over time. It is also important to note the differences that take place over time. Many people may not know it, but more schools of thought opened up after it was revealed that there might be some kind of link between an individual and their chemical or genetic makeup. Even hormones have been speculated to make a difference in this field.

If you find yourself confused by what you’ve read to this point, don’t despair. Everything should be crystal clear by the time you finish.

By looking at the different schools of thought, an individual can understand how time and scientific advances lead to a more individual understanding of how crime is produced. Many theories also arose in order to try to help explain what affected an individual and enticed them to commit a crime, including how society in general may have contributed to this calling. Lombroso believed that a criminal is born with the particular defect, and that a man or woman that possessed the chemical and biological makeup of a criminal will have no choice but to succumb to that lifestyle. Supporters believe that this is the nature of the criminal, and no amount of nurturing can change the outcome. Initially, crime was expected, by individuals such as Cohen and Felson, to be a choice. These people believe that criminals could choose to make a different decision but due to indifference or lack of knowledge, these individuals do not want to choose morality over the instant gratification that is rewarded by crime. These different theories would test and be attributed to the different criminologists, all done while students are engaged in a criminology class, and preparing for the life that awaits them after graduation.

A look at the criminal mind and the rational mind would also likely help individuals to establish their own personal beliefs about criminology and the reactions of society and deviance. It is important to allow individuals to examine these things individually in order to encourage students taking part in a lesson plan for the material to be able to form their own opinion, without it being the suggestion of someone else. In this way, it can be suggested that bias does not affect the lives of the individuals that are studying criminology, or influence the way in which they think about or relate to crime.

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ReThinking Criminology Jock Young

When you’re learning about something new, it’s easy to feel overwhelmed by the sheer amount of relevant information available. This informative article should help you focus on the central points.

Jock Young is a very important theorist when it comes to criminology. He has been able to contribute in a variety of different ways when it comes to how we are able to define crime as a society and what the sociological elements may be when it comes to the criminal element in a region. Many of his papers have been published in different books and journals. From there, his work has been able to influence the thinking and direction of other criminologists? theories and ideas. For the most part, his work has always been about pushing forward with ideas and theories in order to determine the roots of crime and how to eliminate the criminal element from societies.

This is important because it would lead to the general well-being of a particular area, while individuals would be able to relax and not worry or stress about the level of crime or violence in the area. Criminology, and Jock Young, revolves around the study of how crime is created and how it interacts with society. So far, we have not been able to determine a direct cause of crime. In order to make sure that we do, criminology constantly needs to be re-addressed and thought about from different angles in order to ensure that we are one day able to come to the correct and proper conclusions that would allow our societies to operate in a more effective and efficient manner, free of violent crime.

Once you begin to move beyond basic background information, you begin to realize that there’s more to Criminology than you may have first thought.

Different perspectives need to be used when viewing criminology in order to keep the approached to the science fresh and always evolving. In many cases, there are a number of approaches that need to be redefined in order to make them more applicable to different societies. It is also important that individuals who study criminology do not neglect cultural or societal differences between cultures and the crime that takes place in the area that is being studied.

While one theory may work in a specific geographical area, there are different cultural and societal aspects that may make the theory null and void in another geographic location, even if the crimes are similar in both areas. Criminology needs to be rethought when looking at different societies in order to make sure that there are the proper distinctions placed on the culture of the crime scene. Some other factors that may be important when looking at the ways in which the criminal element and the culture or society interacts would be in regards to gender, age and the type of crime that is being committed. These may seem like variables in the science of studying crime and society, but there are many reasons to believe that these differences may formulate completely different outcomes as a result.

In addition, there are some people that believe it would be more applicable to look at how a person maintains a non-deviant lifestyle as opposed to how a person might become a criminal. These are just some of the ways in which it can help to readdress criminology and crime in order to come to different conclusions about how we interact and function within the world when it comes to morals and non-deviant living.

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How to Use Criminology and Forensic Science to Effectively Solve Crimes

There are a number of ways in which an individual is able to couple criminology and the practices of forensic science in order to catch a criminal. In some cases, the individual is profiled through criminology and matched up to the forensic evidence left at the scene of the crime. However, there are a number of other ways in which the two genres are used together in order to bring about justice within the penal system. Criminology is the study of how science and environment affects the criminal mind, as well as the interaction between individuals or communities and the criminal element. Forensic science is the area of study in which individuals are able to transform one small piece of information into something of substance. In many cases, forensic scientists are able to use pieces of forensic evidence and what they learn from this piece in order to effectively illustrate either a link between and individual and the crime or an alibi for the individual wrongly accused of a crime.

Sometimes the most important aspects of a subject are not immediately obvious. Keep reading to get the complete picture.

A few major career focus areas for forensic scientists exist. Criminology areas of expertise range as well, although they are all trained by learning similar material in school. Forensic science fields are especially diverse and offer unique benefits within each one. Together, the members of the forensic science and criminology teams are able to work together in order to piece together their separate information to come up with one solution near completion, based on the facts they have all gathered. For example, a police officer working as a criminology expert may be able to psychologically profile a suspect, but they would require the help of a forensic scientist in order to match carpet fibers from the crime scene to carpet fibers in the suspect?s home or vehicle. By linking together all the separate notions that each individual is able to learn, a complete or near complete timeline of the suspect and crime can be composed. With enough evidence, this can be taken before a court and the trial will begin against the alleged suspect.

Some of the categories that exist for individuals involved in forensic work include medical examiners that inspect corpses, crime laboratory analysts that are able to look at the chemical and biological makeup of pieces of evidence, crime scene examiners, and those that assist in a technical or academic capacity. Through the combination of these different branches, coupled with the work of criminologists, crimes can be pieced together in a more logical and straightforward way, in order to illustrate to juries and judges the events of the crime and suspected individual. This is especially important because in serious cases the jury has to be in agreement that there is no reasonable doubt on the part of the individual defendant?s role in the crime. In other cases, the defense will use the forensic evidence in order to clear their defendant of the charge or charges against them. By using virtually irrefutable evidence of a scientific nature, the jury and the judge are able to clearly see how crimes are or are not linked to the suspect.

You can’t predict when knowing something extra about Criminology will come in handy. If you learned anything new about Criminology in this article, you should file the article where you can find it again.

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What is Criminology?

Have you ever wondered if what you know about Criminology is accurate? Consider the following paragraphs and compare what you know to the latest info on Criminology.

When people look into criminology, they may initially be surprised by how expansive the field is. Anyone that is at all associated with the scientific study of crime, the relationship between the criminal and his or her environment, and society?s reaction to crime would have some sort of placement within the scene of Criminology. In some instances, criminologists are researchers that are trying to find the common links between deviant behavior and the environment, in order to try to pinpoint what it is that causes or perpetuates crime.

There are currently a number of different theories that attempt to explain, through the process of science, what it is that causes a crime to take place. These theories began to emerge in earnest in the middle of the 1800?s. Over the course of the next 200 or so years, new theories began to spring up and eventually they began to involve genetics, hormones and biological makeup. Previously, theories of criminology rested heavily on society and the environment?s effect on the individual as a source to either push an individual into crime or away from crime.

See how much you can learn about Criminology when you take a little time to read a well-researched article? Don’t miss out on the rest of this great information.

There are three distinct schools of thought when it comes to criminology. One of the first schools of thought, the Classical school believes that utilitarian philosophy is the supporting notion of criminology. They argue that individuals have free will and can decide for themselves what is right and what is wrong. The hedonistic, or self-indulgent, side of the body must be balanced against the rational of the individual. When the hedonistic side wins, crime may ensue. Rational is the side of the individual that would consider the penalty of the crime and, if the punishment is severe enough, is believed to be the piece of the individual that would keep them from crime by looking at the costs. Positivists are those who believe that the factors that contribute to the criminal?s propensity to go against the law do not rest within their own control. Rather, elements such as society or the person?s chemical makeup do.

These are things that are considered to be outside the control of the individual, but are still things that may play what Positivists claim as the biggest part of the responsibility when a criminal has committed a crime. In the Chicago school of thought, individuals believe that criminals are a result of the disorganized environments from which they come. Later, this definition was extended to include the belief that older generations taught younger generations about the role of crime. It is then fair to say that these individuals believe that crime is a social occurrence only where the social makeup of the area is broken down and unequal.

Crime is often considered to be a blemish when it comes to the society of an area. It causes people to fear when they should not have to. Criminologists are, in their own way, attempting to determine what causes a crime or instigates that type of behavior in a person in order to limit the amount of crime that takes place.

Now might be a good time to write down the main points covered above. The act of putting it down on paper will help you remember what’s important about Criminology.

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What is the Definition of Criminology?

When thinking about what criminology is, an individual needs to first consider what aspects and fields are affected by the criminal element. Some of these fields will also either perpetuate or deter crime, depending on how they are used. Anthropology, sociology, law, research positions and others all tie into criminology. Criminology could then be defined as how any of these many multitudes of society?s development and creation are able to affect how individuals interact, specifically when it comes to the degenerate element. Using science to approach the evolution of crime within an area or timeframe allows individuals to learn how an environment may respond to and otherwise affect crime. Certain things can be analyzed in order to come to a conclusion about crime and the criminal element within a particular area, such as any hereditary elements that may have had a factor or psychological issues that would have instigated the crime. In addition, many criminologists are also interested in studying how the punishment of criminals affects the likelihood of the same crimes being performed.

See how much you can learn about Criminology when you take a little time to read a well-researched article? Don’t miss out on the rest of this great information.

When people?s actions or movements deviate from the normal status of things in a way which is excessively harmful or dangerous to themselves or others, criminologists may become involved in the situation. By studying both crime and the law, an academic person can come up with possible motivations for an individual?s actions. These theoretical explanations are often helpful when profiling a person who has yet to be caught by the police, as well as when statistics are needed in order to illustrate a trend or issue for a community. However, it is not just crimes that are studied and analyzed by the criminologist. In addition, they also look at the criminal justice system on a whole in order to make sure that it is functioning in a sufficient manner that benefits the lives of citizens.

The definition of criminology is broad in order to encompass all of the different fields that fall under the term. However, by being more specific in the type of criminology that is being investigated, an individual is able to focus more on the individuals cornerstones of the different types of criminology that exist. For example, psychological criminology was a part of criminology for a long time but did not begin to be looked at on its own until the 20th century. This field looks at the abnormalities and mental diseases that may feed criminal behaviors. It is specialized in the way that proponents of this type of criminology believe that the personality of the individual is the breeding ground for the levels and types of crime that the individual will be capable of committing. Emotions and behavior patterns are often able to remain relatively stable and predictable regardless of what type of environment the individual is placed into, which helps academics to formulate the idea that this is what defines a person. Criminologists are able to look at crime and other related fields from different perspectives in order to analyze the cause and effect relationship of the crime, the individual and the environment in which they are immersed.

The day will come when you can use something you read about here to have a beneficial impact. Then you’ll be glad you took the time to learn more about Criminology.

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What is the American Society of Criminology?

The American Society of Criminology is one of the best references and sources of information regardless of where an individual lives and what country is maintained as their place of residence. Contrary to the implication in the name of the organization, the American Society of Criminology is actually an international organization that is open to many people. Annually, the organization hosts a general meeting, and topics are discussed that seem appropriate in which everyone can take part. The themes are generally vague, but still give way to important topics. Recently, the meeting has had the theme of ?Criminology, Justice and Public Policy in the 21st Century?. Since this type of conversation topic does not limit itself geographically, anyone is free to express their concerns or issues when it comes to these matters, as they feel the public will be affected by them in this coming century.

In addition to offering annual talks for professors, legal minded individuals and other academics interested in the various aspects of criminology, the law and sociological effects as a result of crime, the American Society of Criminology is also geared towards helping these people. There are employment opportunities at the meetings as well, and on their website the American Society of Criminology actively updates their position and employment posting boards. As a result, individuals that are going to be graduating from college with a Criminology degree can find on their website a wealth of information pertaining not only to available jobs and markets, but also a resource in the form of networking with likeminded individuals.

Sometimes the most important aspects of a subject are not immediately obvious. Keep reading to get the complete picture.

Members of the American Society of Criminology are able to enjoy different criminology journals and a newsletter. The reading materials are helpful for all interested parties because they transmit the information that is changing and being expanded on in the legal and criminology arenas, and will often feature segments on various countries around the world. There are some specialized regiments within the Society, and members sometimes interact with each other on these specialized levels. This is again helpful for students looking to break into a specific niche after graduating and those who are particularly interested in specific areas of criminology. One of the main functions of the Society is to educate people and investigate the many ways in which crime, the criminal element and society are related and dependent upon one another in various manners. They are open to all willing individuals and encourage interested parties to join or investigate their organization at any point in time.

Within the Society there is an Executive Board. This is made up of the President, the President Elect, the Immediate past President, as well as the Vice President and the Vice President Elect. Those positions are elected. There are also appointed officers, and these positions are made up of the executive secretary, as well as the treasurer and the editor for one of the Criminology Journals, known as Criminology: An Interdisciplinary Journal. Six Executive Counselors are also added to the board. These are the individuals that run the society on the whole; those who form policies, determine the specifics of the Annual Meeting, and ratify the Society?s budget.

That’s how things stand right now. Keep in mind that any subject can change over time, so be sure you keep up with the latest news.

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Exploring the Basics of Postmodern Criminology

The following paragraphs summarize the work of Criminology experts who are completely familiar with all the aspects of Criminology. Heed their advice to avoid any Criminology surprises.

One of the most current theories to be designed within the science of criminology would be those that adhere to the postmodern perspective. When it comes to postmodern criminology, one of the most basic beliefs and supposititious is that not only is crime the result of the social interactions in an area, which is the foundation of most conflict theories in criminology, but also that the social context will play a part on the outcome of a situation as well. This extends on the conflict theories that were created, which suggest that the criminal is responsible for his or her own actions, and that the deviant behavior of the individual is what caused them to go against the social norms that have been established by the ruling government. By expanding upon theories that have already been created, it is possible for individuals to evolve the beliefs more and hopefully get closer to the truth of identifying how a criminal is created and what effects this has on individuals and the society at large.

I trust that what you’ve read so far has been informative. The following section should go a long way toward clearing up any uncertainty that may remain.

Postmodern criminology supporters will look at a crime or criminal action and will go on to ask a very important question. Was the crime a result of the environment that exists in the society where the crime was committed? By identifying whether or not the culture was responsible for the crime or not, it is possible to learn more concretely how different instances in an individual?s life will affect them. In some cases, individuals are forced to go against the normal responses to particular situations. There are many times in which an individual may have to kill another person, and while this type of violence is rarely enjoyed, it can be a last resort for certain people. A good example of this having occurred would be to look at an instance in which a policeman had to shoot a suspect in order to save the lives of many innocent people in the immediate area. The individual policeman cannot be said to be inherently criminal or deviant, because if the shooting is justified than he had no other reaction. Even if another reaction could have occurred, it may not have been as successful, beneficial or helpful to the individuals that were also involved in the situation. In making the decision to stop the shooter in the illustrated situation, the policeman stepped beyond the ordinarily imposed social norms that would define murder. Instead, he is more likely to be seen as providing a service to the individuals that were being threatened in the situation.

By building and rebuilding social contexts and responses, as a whole we can work together to create a better society. Within a better society, there will be less criminal elements to distract the public. This is because the responses that we develop will be more likely to benefit others in addition to ourselves in an honest form. When the society is more stable and healthy the criminal element will not be as prevalent, which is one of the important building blocks of postmodern criminology theories.

This article’s coverage of the information is as complete as it can be today. But you should always leave open the possibility that future research could uncover new facts.

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How to Notice the Difference between Criminology and Psychology

Would you like to find out what those-in-the-know have to say about Criminology? The information in the article below comes straight from well-informed experts with special knowledge about Criminology.

Psychology is the scientific study of an individual?s behaviors and thoughts as a basis for their personality and reactionary processes. There are many reasons that a person may be studied by a psychologist. Sometimes, the people who are being studied are simply trying to find ways to move past a particular feeling or longing that they cannot seem to let go of on their own. By using psychology and investing in the help that they can receive from a psychologist, a person can be shown the different ways in which they approach situations and learn to react differently and redefine their approaches to problems or stressors. In learning different habits as reaction processes, a person can learn to overcome different problems or feelings that they may have not been able to do at an earlier time, before being studied in the psychology field. Psychologists tend to amass the information that they are able to gather from different subjects in order to learn about how the human mind operates in a general sense. The information can be used also to notice the similarities and differences that exist between the individual mind and assessment of life.

While Criminology is also the study of an individual?s behavior and thought process, there is a specific outcome that is being sought by the criminologist. The individual?s actions and thoughts are being investigated in order to learn how that individual is able to either overcome or succumb to the different elements of crime that exist within an environment. There are many different thoughts surrounding how a criminal comes to be. Some believe a criminal is born with the natural instinct to be deviant while others believe that the criminal element is nurtured within an individual by specific environmental aspects. Criminologists are often in the pursuit of why and how a person is able to act out in a way that is either hurtful to themselves or others. They use their knowledge in order to provide a safe and comforting environment for the general public.

Knowledge can give you a real advantage. To make sure you’re fully informed about Criminology, keep reading.

Psychological criminology is a specific branch of criminology that combines these two perspectives. By using psychology as the only basis for the invention of the individual, criminologists are able to generate a profile of the perpetrator. In looking at an individual?s actions or behavior patterns, psychological criminologists are able to see into the personality of the individual that is being tracked or studied. This can help criminologists to analyze the pattern in order to cut the perpetrator off before they are able to perform their next criminal act, if the individual is still on the loose, or it can help the criminologist to understand how the crime came to be, in effect determining the motive for the crime. However, psychological criminologists are typically not the ones who will help criminals to move beyond their behavioral or mental deviants. Instead, they generally use their knowledge in order to help others understand what the criminal did and why, effectively helping to get answers out of the criminal that may be useful or necessary.

By analyzing the mind, both criminologists and psychologists are attempting to gain insight into the individual. While in some instances this is being done for the benefit of the individual, in other instances this is being done in order to keep the public at large safe from the individual.

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Experiencing the Parallels between Victimology and Criminology

All too often, society is inclined to allow criminals to receive leniency for their crimes as a result of the environment in which a person may have existed. Even if the criminal was not influenced by their environment to commit the crime, the criminal is liable to adopt the persona of the victim in order to gain sympathy. This is often successful because when more well-off individuals are in the presence of those that are considered to be less fortunate, they may feel guilt. In many cases, this guilt is not necessary. However, if an individual begins to express their opinion that by adopting the role of a victim the criminal is dodging the responsibility of the crime, they will likely be criticized greatly for their thoughts.

Victimology, even if it is sincere, is often a way in which individuals justify a crime to themselves and to others. For example, one of the most commonly held beliefs within the United States of America is that of the great American dream, in which everyone is happy, living in a nice house and the parents have stable occupations making a comfortable living for their families. This does not at all reflect the reality of inner city slums and poor rural areas. By clinging to the belief that no matter what, even without trying in some cases, individuals deserve to experience the American dream, they may be inclined to take what they feel they deserve rather than try to work for it. Some people will rationalize that they have no means to work for this dream, and they had no choice but to act out in the way that they did. However, this blaming of society does not change the reality of the situations. By allowing one person to get away with a crime because of a victim mentality would be a slap in the face to the people that do work to succeed.

Now that we’ve covered those aspects of Criminology, let’s turn to some of the other factors that need to be considered.

Herein lays the most important parallel between victimology and Criminology. While it is simple to blame society for one?s troubles, this does not begin to solve the problem. Individuals from all sides need to think about how the society may impact the role of the criminal and to take steps in order to change things. This way, when an individual tries to adopt a victim mentality, we can state as a society that there were other options. By outlining the different options in such a setting, even more people can be exposed to the ways in which society is working to stabilize equality between different categories of individuals and work to reduce crime as a product of environment or surroundings. Criminology works to examine how society and the criminal interact, and this needs to be looked at under extreme scrutiny in order to find the causes of problems and work towards successful solutions.

There are also instances in which those who are perceived to be in a seat of power will become corrupt. It is important to look at this too. Individuals may attempt to adopt a victim role in this scene as well in order to appeal to the sympathetic public. Aside from sociopaths, individuals have moral standards that will tell them what is wrong and what is right. For anyone to adopt the role of the victim in order to gain sympathy is a ploy against the considerate nature of others. When it comes to crime, the people that should be playing the role of the victim are those who were victimized during the act of the crime. For individuals that live, they are many times much stronger than people may have believed them to be, and it is nauseating that the criminal will then try to adopt a role that the person they violated will not even take on in the court room.

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By Robert Hamborg, feel free to visit:
Pinkham Communications

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